By Early Modern Englishmany nouns were capitalized, and the earth became and often remained the Earth, particularly when referenced along with other heavenly bodies. More recently, the name is sometimes simply given as Earth, by analogy with the names of the other planets.
Nearby, spread across several additional tables, lay her project—the largest and most detailed map ever produced of a part of the world no one had ever seen.
For centuries, scientists had believed that the ocean floor was basically flat and featureless—it was too far beyond reach to know otherwise.
But the advent of sonar had changed everything. As she charted the measurements by hand on sheets of white linen, the floor of the ocean slowly took shape before her. Tharp spent weeks creating a series of six parallel profiles of the Atlantic floor stretching from east to west.
Her drawings showed—for the first time—exactly where the continental shelf began to rise out of the abyssal plain and where a large mountain range jutted from the ocean floor. Her maps also showed something else—something no one expected. Tharp stared at it. It had to be a mistake.
She crunched and re-crunched the numbers for weeks on end, double- and triple-checking her data. As she did, she became more convinced that the impossible was true: She was looking at evidence of a rift valley, a place where magma emerged from inside the earth, forming new crust and thrusting the land apart.
If her calculations were right, the geosciences would never be the same. A few decades before, a German geologist named Alfred Wegener had put forward the radical theory that the continents of the earth had once been connected and had drifted apart. No force on Earth was thought powerful enough to move continents.
Though her job at Columbia was simply to plot and chart measurements, she had more training in geology than most plotters—more, in fact, than some of the men she reported to. Tharp had grown up among rocks.
Her father worked for the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, and as a child, she would accompany him as he collected samples. But she never expected to be a mapmaker or even a scientist.
After Pearl Harbor, however, universities opened up their departments. At the University of Ohio, she discovered geology and found a mentor who encouraged her to take drafting.
Because Tharp was a woman, he told her, fieldwork was out of the question, but drafting experience could help her get a job in an office like the one at Columbia.
After graduating from Ohio, she enrolled in a program at the University of Michigan, where, with men off fighting in the war, accelerated geology degrees were offered to women. There, Tharp became particularly fascinated with geomorphology, devouring textbooks on how landscapes form. Studying the crack in the ocean floor, Tharp could see it was too large, too contiguous, to be anything but a rift valley, a place where two masses of land had separated.
When she compared it to a rift valley in Africa, she grew more certain. Tharp went back to the data and started plotting again from scratch.
Heezen and Tharp were often at odds and prone to heated arguments, but they worked well together nonetheless.
He was the avid collector of information; she was the processor comfortable with exploring deep unknowns. As the years went by, they spent more and more time together both in and out of the office.
Though their platonic-or-not relationship confused everyone around them, it seemed to work. In lateas Tharp was replotting the ocean floor, Heezen took on another deep-sea project searching for safe places to plant transatlantic cables.
He was creating his own map, which plotted earthquake epicenters in the ocean floor. As his calculations accumulated, he noticed something strange: Most quakes occurred in a nearly continuous line that sliced down the center of the Atlantic.
Meanwhile, Tharp had finished her second map—a physiographic diagram giving the ocean floor a 3-D appearance—and sure enough, it showed the rift again.
When Heezen and Tharp laid their two maps on top of each other on a light table, both were stunned by how neatly the maps fit. They moved on from the Atlantic and began analyzing data from other oceans and other expeditions, but the pattern kept repeating.
They found additional mountain ranges, all seemingly connected and all split by rift valleys; within all of them, they found patterns of earthquakes. After he presented on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at Princeton, one eminent geologist responded, "Young man, you have shaken the foundations of geology!
But what he ultimately saw in the footage shocked him. Cousteau and his crew were so astonished that they turned around, went back, and filmed again.What is science?
Science is the concerted human effort to understand, or to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works, with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding caninariojana.com is done through observation of natural phenomena, and/or through experimentation that tries to simulate natural .
Victor R. Baker is Regents Professor and Head of the Department of Hydrology and Water Resources at the University of Arizona.
He was also the President of the Geological Society of America. Baker has authored over scientific research papers and several books concerned with paleohydrology, geomorphology, planetary geology, the history and philosophy of Earth .
Browse by Topic. Find books in subject areas that are of interest to you. In conventional designations of Earth science geology, meteorology, oceanography, and astronomy, are the predominant classifications. Geology is focal on the Earth itself, meteorology is focal on the atmosphere and its related processes, oceanography is focused on the Earth’s oceans and Astronomy is the study of the universe.
You will automatically be redirected to our official domain, caninariojana.com in five seconds. You can also click the link to avoid waiting. Please update your bookmarks. BUFFALO, N.Y. — A research consortium led by the University at Buffalo has been awarded $ million from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to continue its groundbreaking work developing advanced imaging techniques for critical biological processes that are difficult, if not impossible, to see with conventional methods.