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Tweet Washington became one of the first two states, along with Colorado, to legalize adult recreational use of marijuana when voters approved Initiative on November 6, The vote was the culmination of a long campaign to end legal penalties for possession and use of the plant and its byproducts, a campaign that since the s had won reduced criminal penalties, permitted medical use, and finally legalization under state law -- marijuana remained illegal, in Washington and elsewhere, under federal law.
This essay traces the history of marijuana, a substance that had been used by humans for thousands of years until being demonized and outlawed across much of the world during the twentieth century, and of the movement to end the criminalization of marijuana use in Washington.
Nature's Pharmacy Nature produces a wide range of medicinal and psychoactive compounds, and humans have used many of them for thousands of years, for healing, for religious purposes, and for recreation.
During the millennia when only magic could explain most natural phenomena, plant-derived drugs such as opium and cannabis were believed in many cultures to enhance insight into the mysteries of existence.
In some societies their use was sacred, confined to healers and holies who would then interpret the experience for the faithful.
In other societies, psychoactive drugs were used by ordinary citizens, to heal, to approach the divine, or for simple enjoyment. It is an indisputable fact that throughout recorded history a not-insignificant percentage of the human race has used chemical compounds to alter, at least temporarily, how they experience reality.
With the exceptions of alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine, marijuana is probably the most widely used psychoactive substance known to humans, and the only one of the four that has been illegal in America since the repeal of alcohol prohibition in Unlike most plants and fungi that contain psychoactive chemicals, the hemp plant the dried leaves and flowers of which are marijuana has many practical uses.
Since as long ago as B. The first unambiguous written mention of hemp being used for medicinal purposes appears in the Rh-Ya, a fifteenth century B. The Atharva Veda, a compilation of Hindu hymns and scripture that first was reduced to writing ca. Favorable mentions of hemp under a variety of names but never "marijuana"appear in the early records of many societies, particularly in Asia and South Asia.
Following the Linnaean ladder, the Cannabis L. Ruderalis the latter, until recently, found only in Russia and other northern latitudes.
A fourth name, C. Americanus, appears to be an exercise in geographical hubris, with no scientific basis or separate existence in nature.
Etymologists believe that the words "hemp" and "cannabis" are derived from a single Indo-European root that first entered the western world as the Greek kannabis, probably borrowed from the Scythian civilization from the steppes of Central Asia, where hemp itself may have first been used by humans.
Hemp probably originated in Central Asia and spread with human migration and trade. Shreds of hempen cloth and other hemp products have been found in archaeological sites in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Certainly by the thirteenth century C.
It is likely that in most places where hemp was used as a material, it was also used for its physical and psychoactive effects.
In the fifth century B. The qualities that made hemp commercially valuable were strength and durability. Hemp ropes were sturdy, long-lasting, and resistant to stretching, and were used on sailing ships for centuries, notably the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria on which Columbus sailed in Fabric made from hemp for clothing is porous, yet traps air, making it useful in both hot and cool climates.
Hemp is also economical -- studies have shown that a plot of cultivated hemp can produce percent more usable fiber than cotton and percent more than flax grown in the same space.
In the mid-sixteenth century the Spanish introduced the plant into the Americas in what is today Chile, and it spread north from there. In colonial days, the growing of hemp for manufacturing use was widely encouraged, and was mandated by law in the colony of Virginia in Hemp horticulture remained common in the United States until after the Civil War.
Up through the early s, extracts made from the leaves and flowers of the hemp plant were found in many patent medicines. In an interesting sidelight, hemp production was encouraged again by the United States government during World War II, at a time when the possession or use of marijuana was illegal in every state.
But the other product of the plant, hemp fiber, was deemed critical to the war effort, and farmers were granted licenses to supply the military with its needs. This brief love affair ended with the war, and hemp once again became a forbidden crop.RH Bill: Hanging in the Balance Essay.
B. Pages:2 Words This is just a sample. This is the same case happening with the season’s national concern: House Bill 96, otherwise known as the Reproductive Health, Responsible Parenthood and Population and Development Act. Reproductive Health Bill/RH Bill ; Reproductive Health Bill.
DaxxSteel. I am an average white male who has been chewed up by the system and has had a fairly recent epiphany. It took near death over doses, jail and the death of close friends to awaken me and show me what's important in this life.
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Origins: No, you’re not going to be receiving money, merchandise, or free trips from Bill Gates (or anyone else), no matter how many people you forward this message to. At the time this gag. A major aspect of the debate over abortion concerns the use of terminology. In keeping with Just Facts’ Standards of Credibility, this research uses language that is clear and caninariojana.com, expressions such as “pro-life” and “pro-choice” are replaced by words that detail specific positions. The Strange Island Of Palmyra In this overpopulated and troubled world we live in, there is a popular dream of escaping to a tropical paradise island where we can live in quiet bliss, supping the juice of cocoa nuts, catching our daily meals in the water and just getting away from it all.
Hebrew (/ ˈ h iː b r uː /; עִבְרִית, Ivrit (listen) or (listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.
The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th.