Control or evaluate performance of subordinates and the department - performance appraisals.
Some of the most common responsibilities of supervisors are to delegate work, and to give information or advice to subordinates. In acknowledging that it is the duty of supervisors to ensure that employee job performance is at maximum potential, it would be advantageous for managers in all trades and industry sectors worldwide to understand what types of employee-supervisor interactions are associated with employee job performance.
Knowledge regarding the possible association between supervisor-employee relationship and job performance would enable the implementation of more effective systems for management, and subsequently, better productivity for the company through increased job performance.
This assessment seeks to evaluate examples from current research to understand the relationship between four dimensions of employee-supervisor interaction [perceived organizational support POStrust in the supervisor TSleader-member exchange LMXand reward systems RS ], and employee job performance.
Research on the associations of these variables shows varied results because of the difficulty in ruling out extraneous variables in the workplace.
However, researchers generally agree that POS can act as a foundation for interaction with supervisors that allows other beneficial constructs, such as trust, to begin to develop.
An organization is really a complex system that has no physical body of its own, so if an employee is to feel a sense of support, it will result from interactions with other individuals within the company. Supervisors act as the face of the organization, giving employees feedback and advocating on behalf of their company.
In this respect, Rhodes and Eisenberger stated that favorable treatment from a supervisor is synonymous with support from the organization, which raises POS among employees.
In other words, whether the company has an organizational hierarchy, team management, positive reinforcement, or negative reinforcement method of management, employees tend to view fairness, support, rewards, and favorable job conditions as signs of POS.
POS acts as an emotional reward to employees for their continued loyalty and high job performance. In this respect, the psychological state of employees acts as a moderator in the POS to job performance relationship. Furthermore, current mood often affects the way support is received.
For example, an employee that is usually grateful to receive help from a supervisor may see the help as annoying or unnecessary if the employee were in an unsociable mood. Trust is an essential factor in the acceptance of duties and information from supervisors.
This behavior could result in slower task completion Elmuti, In this scenario, the lack of trust established acts as an impediment to employee productivity, and consequentially results in losses for the company in the form of wasted employee time.
When TS is very low subordinates may disregard directives from their supervisors out of fear that the information given to them is unreliable.
In order to optimize the efficiency of the delegation of duties, it is important for supervisors to gain the trust of their employees. Showing competence is one of the first and most important things that a supervisor can do to begin establishing trust with subordinates.
Elangovan and Xie reported that perception of supervisors has an impact on many employee outcomes related to production. They went on to explain that perception of a supervisor has a positive correlation with motivation and a negative correlation with stress in employees Elangovan and Xie, The hiring process is the first sign of trust and acceptance of an employee by a manager, and it is generally expected that trust will be reciprocated by the employee.
Employees are allowed to take on responsibilities that are important to the company, and acquire roles within the social framework of the organization, but they are expected to always act with the best interests of the company in mind.
As trust in an employee increases, supervisors tend to respond by providing the employee with job enlargement, the intentional increase in the duties and responsibilities of the employee.
To ensure that employees recognize job enlargement as a sign of trust, the assigned work must be given with a corresponding increase in responsibility. When employees are given more work duties without increased responsibility, it may indicate to the employees that they did not do enough work or that they are being punished.
In assessing the necessary factors for trust in the workplace, it is apparent that trust accumulates over time through events that allow the respective parties to evaluate and reevaluate each other based on their actions.
In the organizational hierarchy, the only way to gain power is through empowerment bestowed by a supervisor. Hierarchical structuring of a company keeps power situated within individuals who maintain higher ranking.
Once LMX has begun to be established, the supervisor will delegate more responsibility to the employee, which is associated with an increase in employee empowerment. If employees are motivated to increase company productivity or make systems more efficient, empowerment will serve as a license to innovate.
This was thought to impede motivation and make communications more difficult Therefore, a pleasant interaction with a superior holds extra significance if other employees did not receive the same level of interaction. It is important to note however, that LMX must first be established by creating a relationship with a give and take nature.
The exchange element in LMX is fundamental because it allows for the conceptualization of mutual trust and respect, which encourages information exchange. In this respect trust and LMX are intertwined, acting as both source and product of the other.
Reward Systems RS are groups of standardized responses that are designed to give benefits to employees who perform tasks specified by their company or superior Businessdictionary. A RS is another form of supervisor-employee interaction in the sense that a reward is typically created by a manager to give to subordinates, and subordinates respond to those rewards verbally or behaviorally.
In fact, all of the constructs previously discussed are heavily connected to RS by either being rewards themselves POS, LMXor acting as a part of the measurement of the construct trust in supervisor TS.
POS and LMX are methods of positive reinforcement because they are increased as an employee fulfills their psychological and occupational contracts.
When employees determine their level of TS, reward distribution is considered because employees must feel that they are rewarded properly for their contributions in order to know that their supervisors have their best interest in mind.
Research shows that most RS methodology has a positive correlation with job productivity in employees Elangovan and Xie, The primary forms of rewards are psychological eg:43) The _____ problem occurs when supervisors tend to rate all their subordinates consistently low.
A) central tendency B) leniency C) strictness D) unclear standards E) halo effect Answer: C Explanation: Some supervisors tend to rate all their subordinates consistently high or low%(77).
The supervisor rates each subordinate by circling or checking the score that best describes the subordinate's performance for each trait or dimension. Is probably still the most familiar and popular method for appraising performance.
understood that the supervisor’s rating is the rating which will be used. On some factors, when it is not possible to actually evaluate the performance, supervisors are encouraged to state that they have not had the opportunity to observe this factor rather than rate without information.
Rights of Supervisors The rights of supervisors include the right to assign work to employees under their supervision consistent with job classifications, the right to hold subordinates accountable for the work assigned, and the right to evaluate how effectively such subordinates perform.
Typically, supervisors conduct job evaluations of subordinates to determine areas of strength, areas of improvement, and an employee’s overall satisfaction in the workplace. On occasion, however, subordinates are given the opportunity to evaluate their supervisors. Bottom line, there is no equation that can be used across organizations to decide what is the acceptable pay difference between subordinate and supervisor.