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Summa Theologica, by St.
Thomas Aquinas, , at sacred-texts. Under the first head there are eight points of inquiry: Whether anger is a special passion?
It would seem that anger is not a special passion. For the irascible power takes its name from anger [ira]. But there are several passions in this power, not only one. Therefore anger is not one special passion.
Further, to every special passion there is a contrary passion; as is evident by going through them one by one. But no passion is contrary to anger, as stated above Q, A.
Therefore anger is not a special passion. Further, one special passion does not include another. But anger includes several passions: On the contrary, Damascene De Fide Orth. I answer that, A thing is said to be general in two ways. First, by predication; thus "animal" is general in respect of all animals.
Secondly, by causality; thus the sun is the general cause of all things generated here below, according to Dionysius Div. Because just as a genus contains potentially many differences, according to a likeness of matter; so an efficient cause contains many effects according to its active power.
Now it happens that an effect is produced by the concurrence of various causes; and since every cause remains somewhat in its effect, we may say that, in yet a third way, an effect which is due to the concurrence of several causes, has a certain generality, inasmuch as several causes are, in a fashion, actually existing therein.
Accordingly in the first way, anger is not a general passion but is condivided with the other passions, as stated above Q, A.
In like manner, neither is it in the second way: But in this way, love may be called a general passion, as Augustine declares De Civ. Dei xiv, 7,9because love is the primary root of all the other passions, as stated above Q, A.
But, in a third way, anger may be called a general passion, inasmuch as it is caused by a concurrence of several passions.
Because the movement of anger does not arise save on account of some pain inflicted, and unless there be desire and hope of revenge: Reply to Objection 1: The irascible power takes its name from "ira" [anger], not because every movement of that power is one of anger; but because all its movements terminate in anger; and because, of all these movements, anger is the most patent.
Reply to Objection 2: From the very fact that anger is caused by contrary passions, i. Thus also in mixed colors there is no contrariety, except that of the simple colors from which they are made. Reply to Objection 3: Anger includes several passions, not indeed as a genus includes several species; but rather according to the inclusion of cause and effect.
Whether the object of anger is good or evil? It would seem that the object of anger is evil.Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and it be hid from him; when he knoweth of it, .
Therefore consider the members of your earthly body as dead to immorality, impurity, passion, evil desire, and greed, which amounts to idolatry.
Does it do more harm than good?
Is it a force for evil, who sought to make reason the slave of passions. so can faith. Ward suggests that, although harm has been done in the name of religion, the same is true of politics and science, that religion can "be used to inspire heroic love and commitment.
Evil-skeptics give three main reasons to abandon the concept of evil: (1) the concept of evil involves unwarranted metaphysical commitments to dark spirits, the supernatural, or the devil; (2) the concept of evil is useless because it lacks explanatory power; and (3) the concept of evil can be harmful or dangerous when used in moral, political, and legal contexts, and so, it should not be used in those .
Is Religion Dangerous? is a book by Keith Ward examining the questions: "Is religion dangerous? Does it do more harm than good? Is it a force for evil?" It was first published in Looking at the evidence from history, philosophy, sociology and psychology, Ward focuses on the main question at issue: does religion do more harm than good?
Passions should be controlled by our reason, and not visa versa. When we allow our passions to dominate our reason, we fall into sin and vice.
Perfected humanity is when the passions and reason live in harmony, both helping man to do good.