Assists in proposal writing and presentations, including online and video. Monitors profitability and performance of existing products and services. Produces regularly scheduled reports from marketing database. Coordinates various marketing fulfillment duties and systems including direct mail, packages, letters, catalogs, and other sales literature.
Components[ edit ] The expectancy violations theory examines three main components in interpersonal communication situations: Expectancies, communicator reward valence, and violation valence. Expectancies are primarily based upon social norms and specific characteristics and idiosyncrasies of the communicators.
Rather, they have various expectations of how others should think and behave.
EVT proposes that observation and interaction with others leads to expectancies. The two types of expectancies noted are predictive and prescriptive. If he were to ignore the dirty dishes one night, this might be seen as a predictive discrepancy. Prescriptive expectations, on the other hand, are based upon "beliefs about what behaviors should be performed" and "what is needed and desired" Houser, When the theory was first proposed, EVT identified three factors which influence a person's expectations: Interactant variables, environmental variables, and variables related to the nature of the interaction.
Interaction variables include social normspurpose of the interaction, and formality of the situation. For example, a visit to a church will produce different expectations than a social function.
The expected violations will therefore be altered. Similarly, expectations differ based on culture. In Europeone may expect to be greeted with three kisses on alternating cheeks, but this is not the case in the United States.
Em Griffin summarizes the concept behind Communicator Reward Valence as "the sum of positive and negative attributes brought to the encounter plus the potential to reward or punish in the future". Rewards simply refer to the person's ability to provide a want or need.
The term 'communicator reward valence' is used to describe the results of this assessment. Conversely, if the listener is avoiding eye contact, yawning, and texting, it is implied they have no interest in the interaction and the speaker may feel violated.
When examining the context, relationship, and communicator's characteristics in a given encounter, individuals will arrive at an expectation for how that person should behave.
Changing even one of these expectancy variables may lead to a different expectation.
Rewardingness of the violator is evaluated through many categories — attractiveness, prestige, ability to provide resources, or associated relationship. For instance, a violation of one's personal distance might have more positive valence if committed by a wealthy, powerful, physically appealing member of the opposite sex than a filthy, poor, homeless person with foul breath.
The evaluation of the violation is based upon the relationship between the particular behavior and the valence of the actor. The difference between the negative violation and the negative confirmation do not appear significant.
Dis-confirmations tend to intensify the outcomes, especially in the positive violation condition. The term 'arousal value' is used to describe the consequences of deviations from expectations. When individuals' expectations are violated, their interests or attentions are aroused.
Cognitive arousal is an idea that people will be mentally aware of the violation.
Physical occurs when people have body actions and behaviors in response to the deviations from their expectations. Burgoon introduced the term "threat threshold" to explain that people have different levels of tolerance about distant violations. The threat threshold is high when people feel good even if they keep a very close distance with the violator, whereas people with low threat threshold will be sensitive and uncomfortable about the closeness of distance with the violator.
Guerrero and Burgoon noticed that predictable patterns develop when considering reward valence and violation valence together. For example, your boss gives you a big smile after you have given a presentation. Guerrero and Burgoon would predict that you would smile in return. Similarly, if you perceive the violation valence as negative and perceive the communicator reward valence as negative, the theory again predicts that you reciprocate the negative behavior.
Thus, if a disliked coworker is grouchy and unpleasant towards you, you will likely reciprocate and be unpleasant in return. Conversely, if one perceives a negative violation valence but views the communicator reward valence as positive, it is likely that the person will compensate for his or her partner's negative behavior.
For example, one day your boss appears sullen and throws a stack of papers in front of you. More difficult to predict, however, is the situation in which a person who is viewed unfavorably violates another with positive behavior. In this situation, the receiver may reciprocate, giving the person the "benefit of the doubt.
Violations of these expectations cause arousal and distraction, further leading the receiver to shift his or her attention to the other, the relationship, and the meaning of the violation. Communicator reward valence determines the interpretation of ambiguous communication.
Communicator reward valence determines how the behavior is evaluated. Violation valences are determined by three factors:Many people living in this day and age use technology for everything.
This is especially common through the means of social media. Social media is defined as web sites and other online means of communication that are used by large groups of people to share information and to develop social and professional contacts. Roger Fidler is a new media consultant and visiting professor at the University of Colorado School of Mass Communication and Journalism.
He is an internationally . COLLEGE OF ARTS & SCIENCES COMMUNICATION Detailed course offerings (Time Schedule) are available for. Autumn Quarter ; Winter Quarter ; COM Introduction to Communication (5) I&S/VLPA Introduces theories and research in communication. Explores the myriad ways scholars approach fundamental issues of contemporary human communication.
BACK Your Career Path. The Department of Arts and Communications teaches marketable skills useful for graduates in any field of study. Students from associated majors whose future careers will require proficiency in art, graphic design, public speaking, performance, or the practice of persuasive communication will benefit from departmental involvement.
This course is designed to aid students in understanding the dynamics of interpersonal relationships. Verbal and nonverbal communication patterns between people in personal, social, academic, and professional settings will be examined, and the nature of those interactions will be evaluated using contemporary communication theory.
This research paper presents the findings of a research project that investigated how young adult interpersonal communications have changed since using social media. Specifically, the research focused on determining if using social media had a beneficial or an adverse effect on the development of.