Many cognitive processes are thought to involve sophisticated functions that may be unique to primates. They often involve so-called controlled processes, such as when the pursuit of a goal e. A prototypical example of a neural correlate of a cognitive process is the sustained firing of cells in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as a monkey maintains information in mind for brief periods of time Fuster and Alexander, ; Kubota and Niki,
Many cognitive processes are thought to involve sophisticated functions that may be unique to primates. They often involve so-called controlled processes, such as when the pursuit of a goal e. A prototypical example of a neural correlate of a cognitive process is the sustained firing of cells in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as a monkey maintains information in mind for brief periods of time Fuster and Alexander, ; Kubota and Niki, Whereas there is relative agreement about what constitutes cognition, the same cannot be said about emotion.
Some investigators use definitions that incorporate the concepts of drive and motivation: Others favor the view that emotions are involved in the conscious or unconscious evaluation of events Arnold, i.
Some approaches focus on basic emotions Ekman, e. Strong evidence also links emotions to the body Damasio, Brain structures linked to emotion are often subcortical, such as the amygdalaventral striatumand hypothalamus.
These structures are often considered evolutionarily conserved, or primitive.
They are also believed to operate fast and in an automatic fashion, such that certain trigger features e. Accordingly, an individual may not be necessarily conscious of a stimulus that may have triggered brain responses in an affective brain region, such as the amygdala.
For discussion, see Ohman, ; Pessoa, Because of the inherent difficulty in providing clear definitions for both cognition and emotion, they will not be further defined here. We now turn to illustrating some of the interactions between emotion and cognition.
Given the enormous scope of this topic, by necessity, this review will be relatively narrow in scope and will emphasize the brain systems involved in the interactions between emotion and i perception and attention; ii learning and memory; and iii behavioral inhibition and working memory. A key conclusion from this review and from other current discussions of the relationship between cognition and emotion is that it is probably counterproductive to try to separate them.
Instead, current thinking emphasizes their interdependence in ways that challenge a simple division of labor into separate cognitive and emotional domains.
In particular, in the context of the brain, the general dichotomization alluded to above in terms of cortical-cognitive and subcortical-emotional brain areas is now viewed as largely simplified and breaks down rather quickly when more in-depth analyses are carried out; e.
Before proceeding, however, a brief historical note is in order. It can be said that the mere-exposure effect and other behavioral findings shifted ongoing debates to focus on affect as being related to unconscious processing and subcortical activity, with cognition being related to conscious processing and cortical involvement.
These early behavioral studies provided a strong impetus to the wave of neuroscience research in the late s and beyond that investigated related phenomena. For some of the early theoretical arguments, see Fazio et al.
Perception and attention Viewing emotion-laden visual stimuli is linked to heightened and more extensive visual system activation Pessoa et al. For instance, viewing faces with emotional expressions evokes increased responses relative to viewing neutral faces throughout ventral occipitotemporal visual cortex Figure 1.
Visual responses are also stronger when subjects view emotional scenes e.If we accept the information processing view of the brain, cognitive and biological factors interact in those brain regions where cognitive and perceptual processing is thought to be occurring, such as the thalamus, the hippocampus, the amygdala and the prefrontal lobe.5/5(2).
(1) Biological factors (a) Sense organs. Sense organs are important because they receive stimuli from the environment. Their proper development helps in receiving correct stimuli and the .
SOCIAL COGNI TIVE THEORY Albert Bandura Stanford University personal factors, and environmental influences all operate as interacting determinants that fortuitous events often exert an important influences on the course of human lives (Bandura, b).
There are many fortuitous elements in. As such, this essay response will aim to consider the argument or concept of how both cognitive and biological factors interact in emotion and influence how humans experience emotion.
A conclusion will then be made regarding the extent in which these factors influence emotion. To What Extent Emotion Cognitive and Biological Factors Interact to Create Emotion the extent as to which biological and cognitive factors interact to produce it.
In some older theories where emotion is defined as purely a physiological change are James-Lange and Cannon-Bard.
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define emotion. Biology. Scachter and Singer Canon Bard -amygdala = important role in emotional memories.